Olive is the first of all trees…
The soil should be deeply worked in the fall before planting. Soil drainage and leveling should be done. Terracing is required in olive groves to be established on sloping areas.
Sapling Planting Time
Olive seedlings can be planted on the plot between October and March.
Planting distances and production systems
Today, if necessary cultural practices (drip irrigation, pruning, fertilization, struggle, etc.) are made in order to get more products from olive trees, it can be planted at more frequent distances. High-density and super-high-density systems, which have been applied in some countries in recent years, are also applied by some manufacturers in our country. However, these systems are not recommended because the varieties used in these systems are imported varieties and adaptation tests are not carried out in our country. In olive cultivation, it is aimed to provide more light and air into the crown for the control of potential diseases and pests with natural methods. For this reason, the distances between trees should be kept wide. Planting distances of varieties with large crowns (Domat, Uslu, Rabbit's heart, Donkey olive) in the plant of commercially produced olive varieties in our country are 6x8m.- 7x7m. It is recommended, 5x5m.-4x6m. in varieties with small crown structure (Gemlik). In varieties with medium-sized crown structure (Ayvalık, Memecik, Erkence, Manzanilla, Kilis oilseed, Nizip oily) 5x7m-6x6m. It is recommended to be planted at distances.
It is necessary to take soil samples first from the lands where a garden will be established. According to the results of the analysis, the amount of fertilizer to be given to the planting pit is determined. The fertilizers given to the planting pits with the planting of seedlings are called basic fertilizers, and this process is called basic fertilization. The amount of fertilizer to be given later varies according to the age of the tree and the need of the soil. Therefore, it is necessary to fertilize according to the results of leaf and soil analysis.
Olive pruning usually begins after harvest. In temperate regions where cold and frost damage is not in question, pruning can be done from December. In regions where the climate is cold, it can be done in March-April after the cold has passed. Pruning should not be done during the first two years in newly planted olive saplings. After two years, a shape pruning should be done. In olive trees, light pruning should be preferred during the youth period, and the main pruning should be done during the crop period. In order to reduce the periodicity tendency seen in olive trees, it is recommended to prune the tree strongly in order to reduce the load of the tree as the trees enter their fertile year. For this purpose, crop pruning should be done every two years, at the beginning of the crop year. In addition, periodicity in trees can be reduced by encouraging shoot growth, which will give the next year's product, with adequate irrigation and feeding application. Harvesting trees early and not using poles in harvest also reduce the severity of periodicity.
Olive fruit is evaluated as table or oil. If it is to be used as a table, it is harvested in green or black maturity. Olives for oil are harvested when there is no green fruit left on the tree, and when the oil ratio in the fruit reaches its maximum. The harvest of olives for oil is usually done in November-December. In our country, the harvest of olive trees is mostly done with poles. The severity of periodicity increases due to the damage of annual shoots during harvest. For this reason, harvesting equipment that will not cause excessive leaf fall in olive trees should be used. On the other hand, the best way to collect the olives for table use is to peel the olives by hand.